14

Transportation Machinery and Logistics

English

14.1


General terms and transport motions

14.1.1 TRANSPORTATION
Displacement of goods, persons, animals, material, energy or information from an originating to a destination place.
14.1.2 TRANSPORT
All actions involved with transportation, not only the displacement, but also storage, packaging, handling, stowage, lashing, transhipment etc.
14.1.3 LOGISTICS, TRANSPORTATIONAL
Design, co-ordination and control of the operational functions of a transport system.
14.1.4 MEANS OF TRANSPORT
Equipment used for transportation, like a vessel, airplane, train, road vehicle, conveyor etc.
14.1.5 CARGO [FREIGHT]
Goods or material carried by a means of transport.
14.1.6 GENERAL CARGO
Cargo consisting of single objects when considering transhipment.
14.1.7 BULK SOLID CARGO
Cargo in the form of a heap of loose particles like grain or pulverized material.
14.1.8 TRANSHIPMENT
Transfer of cargo from one means of transport to another.
14.1.9 LIFT
Vertical transportation of objects.
14.1.10 HOIST
Lift by means of a rope, while one or more horizontal motion components of the lifted object are not guided.
14.1.11 LUFF
Rotation of the jib of a crane in a vertical plane, usually intended to also move the tip towards/outwards the base of the crane.
14.1.12 SLEW
Rotation of the jib of a crane in a horizontal plane.
14.1.13 TILT
Inclination of the boom or mast of transport equipment.
14.1.14 TRAVEL
Forward movement of a means of transport, usually horizontal along a track.
14.1.15 SKEW
1. Free rotational motion about a vertical axis concerning a body suspended by two or more ropes. 2. Deviation of the travel direction of a rail mounted vehicle, tending to friction or jamming with the track guiding.
14.1.16 SWAY
Sideways oscillation of a suspended or floating body.
14.1.17 HEAVE
Vertical motion of a floating body due to waves.
14.1.18 SURGE
Longitudinal motion of a floating body due to wind or waves.
14.1.19 ROLL
Rotational motion of a guided or floating body about the longitudinal axis.
14.1.20 LIST
Inclination of a suspended or floating body confirming a rotation about its longitudinal axis.
14.1.21 PITCH
Rotational motion of a guided or floating body about a horizontal axis in traverse direction.
14.1.22 TRIM
Inclination of the longitudinal axis of a suspended or floating body.
14.1.23 YAW
Rotational motion of a guided or floating body about a vertical axis.
14.1.24 BUOYANCY POINT
Centre of mass of the liquid occupied by a floating body.
14.1.25 METACENTRE
Intersection point of the vertical line through the buoyancy point and the symmetry plane of a vessel, for a given inclination.
14.1.26 GM-VALUE
Height difference between the metacentre and the centre of mass of a vessel, as a measure for its roll resistance and stability.
14.1.27 TRACK GAUGE
Distance between the internal sides of rails on a railway line.
14.1.28 RAIL LOADING GAUGE
Profile through which a rail vehicle and its loading must pass, taking into account tunnels and track-side obstacles.

14.2


Hoisting and lifting equipment

14.2.1 BOX GIRDER
Prismatic hollow beam in horizontal position.
14.2.2 LATTICE GIRDER
Horizontal beam constructed as an open framework with a regular pattern.
14.2.3 BOOM
Generic term for an arm that can be luffed to guide an object or suspend material.
14.2.4 MAST
Generic term for a vertical beam intended for guiding an object to be lifted.
14.2.5 JIB
Boom that can rotate about a vertical axis.
14.2.6 BOGIE CARRIAGE
Undercarriage of a rail-mounted transport vehicle with more than two wheels per rail, such that all wheel support forces are equal.
14.2.7 TROLLEY
1. Wheeled carriage that is suspended from and travels on an overhead track. 2. Wheeled container.
14.2.8 ROPE TROLLEY
Trolley in hoist equipment, which has the travel drive in the base and transfers the travel motion by ropes.
14.2.9 FULL ROPE TROLLEY
Rope trolley, which has both the travel and the hoist drive in the base.
14.2.10 MOTOR TROLLEY
Trolley in hoist equipment, which has both the travel and the hoist drive at the trolley.
14.2.11 GRAB
Device for catching, holding and releasing a portion of bulk solid cargo.
14.2.12 CLAMSHELL GRAB [VALSTAR GRAB]
Grab with two shelves, to be closed by a rope via an upper sheave block at the hoisted part and a lower sheave block at the part (or hinge) connecting the shelves.
14.2.13 SCISSORS GRAB
Grab with two shelves rigidly connected to hinged arms, to be closed by a rope via a sheave block at each arm above the hinge.
14.2.14 GRAPPLER ARMS
Arms of a gripper for a land container, engaging with standardized slots at the bottom.
14.2.15 CORNER FITTING [CORNER CASTING]
Certain corner point construction at the top and bottom corners of a container to allow its handling, stacking and securing.
14.2.16 TWIST-LOCK
1. Tool of container handling equipment, typically in the form of a cone on a shaft, that engages and locks into a corner fitting. 2. Device, to be inserted and rotated (manually) into a corner fitting to secure a container.
14.2.17 TWIST-LOCK, SEMI AUTOMATIC
Double-sided twist-lock device, to be applied between two stackable containers, that locks the upper container - equipped with these twist-locks at the bottom corner fittings – automatically to the lower container when being placed.
14.2.18 SPREADER
Adjustable fitting on hoisting or lifting equipment, designed to connect with the upper corner fittings of a maritime container or other container by means of twist-locks.
14.2.19 GANTRY CRANE
Crane with a bridge-like frame on four legs carrying the track of a trolley.
14.2.20 OUTREACH
Seaside boom extension of a container gantry crane.
14.2.21 BACKREACH
Landside bridge extension of a container gantry crane.
14.2.22 FORESTAY
Collapsible set of suspension bars for the outreach.
14.2.23 CHUTE
A trough for bulk solid cargo.
14.2.24 LEVEL LUFFING CRANE
Crane for which luffing of the boom results in a horizontal radial displacement of the load.
14.2.25 DOUBLE BOOM
Specific arrangement of a level luffing crane, based on a four-bar linkage, that results in a horizontal path of the hoisting tip.
14.2.26 LEMNISCATE CRANE
Certain design of a double boom crane, in which the coupler curve of the hoisting tip is 8-shaped.
14.2.27 TOPLIS CRANE
Level luffing crane according to its inventor Toplis, in which the hoisting rope has a three-fold sheave block between the base frame and the boom.
14.2.28 ASC
Automated Stacking Crane.
14.2.29 STRADDLE CARRIER
Rubber-tired overhead lifting vehicle for moving or stacking containers on a level reinforced surface.
14.2.30 REACH STACKER
Vehicle equipped with a tilting and telescoping boom to lift, move or stack containers and other load units.
14.2.31 FORK LIFT TRUCK
Vehicle equipped with a (telescopic) mast and horizontal forks to lift, move or stack pallets and other load units.
14.2.32 LOAD CURVE
Diagram describing the maximum allowable net load of a crane as a function of the crane radius or distance to the crane base.
14.2.33 FOOTPRINT
Polygon of supporting points of transportation equipment, that has to be considered for overturning.
14.2.34 DUTY CYCLE [LOAD CYCLE] [WORKING CYCLE]
Sequence of movements in transportation equipment for one payload.
14.2.35 DUTY CLASS
Classification number as a measure of the number of load cycles per time unit.
14.2.36 LOAD CASE [LOAD COMBINATION]
One of the characteristic load situations at which the design of machinery, regarding its strength, must be based.
14.2.37 DYNAMIC FACTOR [LOAD FACTOR]
Multiplication factor for a (static) applied force in a load case, to account for dynamic effects.
14.2.38 GROUP FACTOR
Multiplication factor for all applied forces of a load case, to account for vibrations of the whole structure.
14.2.39 LOAD SPECTRUM
Spectrum of net loads occurring during the load cycles, for a certain time of operation.
14.2.40 LOAD SPECTRUM FACTOR
Weighted cubic of the ratio of the average net load, as determined from the load spectrum, and the maximum net load.
14.2.41 LOAD SPECTRUM CLASS
Classification number of the service condition of equipment based on the load spectrum factor, where the load spectrum is determined for the whole lifetime of the equipment.
14.2.42 STRESS RATIO
Ratio of minimum and maximum stress at the same place of the construction during a load cycle.
14.2.43 GOODMAN DIAGRAM
Graph, based on the stress ratio and the maximum allowable material stress, to determine the permissible design stress regarding fatigue.
14.2.44 WIRE ROPE
Plurality of strands, helically laid in one or more layers around an axis or core.
14.2.45 STRAND
Arrangements of wires, helically laid about an axis, wire or fibre.
14.2.46 CORE
Fibre, wire or independent wire rope about which the strands of a wire rope are helically laid.
14.2.47 LEFT {RIGHT} LAY
Pitch direction for the wires of a strand, or strands of a rope, similar to a left {right} hand screw.
14.2.48 EQUAL [PARALLEL] LAY ROPE
Wire rope in which each layer of strands lies in the crevices or cracks of the underlying layer such that they are parallel to one another, approximating line contact.
14.2.49 CROSS LAY ROPE
Wire rope in which two successive layers are alternately left lay and right lay such that the strands cross over one another, resulting in point contact.
14.2.50 NON-ROTATING [ROTATION RESISTANT] ROPE
Wire rope with a special arrangement of layers to obtain significant resistance against torsion.
14.2.51 ROTATION-FREE [SEMI-BALANCED] ROPE
Wire rope with a special arrangement of layers to decouple tension, bending and torsion.
14.2.52 REGULAR LAY
Lay in which the strands and the wires in the strands, in a certain layer of a wire rope, are laid in opposite directions.
14.2.53 LANG LAY
Lay in which the strands and the wires in the strands, in a certain layer of a wire rope, are laid in the same direction.
14.2.54 ALTERNATE [REVERSE] LAY
Layer of a wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular lay and lang lay.
14.2.55 ROPE LAY LENGTH
Distance parallel to the axis of a wire rope, in which the outer strands make one complete helix about the axis of the rope.
14.2.56 ROPE STRENGTH EFFICIENCY
Ratio of measured breaking strength of a wire rope to the aggregate strength of all individual wires tested separately.
14.2.57 FLEET ANGLE
Angle between a rope axis and the first sheave plane, as will occur when the rope is wound on to or from a drum.

14.3


Belts and conveyors

14.3.1 CONVEYOR
Continuous belt or chain for transportation of bulk solid cargo, goods or people.
14.3.2 IDLER (ROLL)
Supporting roll of a rope or conveyor belt.
14.3.3 BELT TENSIONER
Idler that can be moved to obtain a (static) pre-tension in a conveyor.
14.3.4 FABRIC STRENGTH EFFICIENCY
Ratio of the measured breaking strength to the aggregate strength of the individual yarns or cords of the fabric.
14.3.5 DYNAMIC YOUNG’S MODULUS (OF A BELT)
Amplitude ratio of a sinusoidal input stress signal to the strain response, in the longitudinal direction of a belt.
14.3.6 LOSS ANGLE
Phase angle of the strain response to a sinusoidal input stress signal in a belt.
14.3.7 STORAGE MODULUS
Cosine part of the dynamic Young’s modulus regarding the loss angle.
14.3.8 LOSS MODULUS
Sine part of the dynamic Young’s modulus regarding the loss angle.
14.3.9 LOSS FACTOR
Ratio of the loss modulus and the storage modulus (also the tangent function of the loss angle).
14.3.10 RELAXATION FUNCTION
Tensor function that specifies the stress response to a unit strain increment for viscoelastic material.
14.3.11 RELAXATION SPECTRUM
Material damping function for a spectrum of relaxation times.
14.3.12 MAXWELL MODEL
Material damping model with a discrete relaxation spectrum, to represent the constitutive behaviour of the material for a certain range of load frequencies.
14.3.13 MAXWELL ELEMENT [3-PARAMETER MAXWELL MODEL]
Simplest possible Maxwell model, consisting of two parallel springs and a damper in series with one of the springs.
14.3.14 WINKLER FOUNDATION
Support by a viscoelastic layer described by a finite set of Maxwell elements perpendicular to the layer.
14.3.15 STRIBECK EFFECT
Initially higher friction when starting to slip.
14.3.16 STRIBECK VELOCITY
Velocity describing the transition phase between dry friction at lower and viscous friction at higher velocity.
14.3.38 SHORT SEA SHIPPING
Transport of freight along coasts and inland waterways, using smaller ships.

14.4


Vehicle science

14.4.1 AXLE, VEHICLE
Integral component part of a vehicle carrying the wheels and wheel suspension, and generally includes brakes, steering components and/or gear drives.
14.4.2 ACKERMANN PRINCIPLE
Principle for the steering wheels of a vehicle that all wheel axes of rotation must intersect in one point, which is the centre of curvature of the path to travel.
14.4.3 PIVOT LINE
Axis of rotation between the bearing house of a steered wheel and the wheel suspension.
14.4.4 CAMBER ANGLE
Angular deviation of a wheel plane from a line perpendicular to the road surface.
14.4.5 CASTER ANGLE
Angular deviation of the pivot line of a steered wheel from a vertical plane through the wheel axis of rotation.
14.4.6 PNEUMATIC TRAIL
Distance between a vertical line through the centre of the wheel and the centre of lateral shear stress of the tyre contact patch.
14.4.7 MAGIC FORMULA (OF A TYRE)
Empirical formula, describing the slip force as a function of slip, for a tyre of a vehicle in steady state motion, dependent on parameters such as wheel load and camber angle.
14.4.8 CORNERING
Lateral displacement of a rolling wheel, caused by a lateral force, due to viscoelastic deformation and/or elastic deformation of the tyre belt.
14.4.9 SLIP ANGLE
Difference angle between the travel velocity of the wheel centre and its projection onto the wheel plane during cornering.
14.4.10 CORNERING STIFFNESS
Ratio of the lateral force and the slip angle for infinitesimal small slip angles.
14.4.11 UNDERSTEER {OVERSTEER}
Cornering situation of a wheeled vehicle travelling a curved path, in which an increased lateral acceleration results in a larger {smaller} difference between the slip angles of the front wheels and the rear wheels.
14.4.12 UNDERSTEER FACTOR [UNDERSTEER COEFFICIENT]
Ratio of required steering angle adjustment and a change of the lateral acceleration, by incrementing the vehicle travel speed, to drive a vehicle through a path with constant radius (a negative factor means oversteer).
14.4.13 CRITICAL SPEED (OF A VEHICLE)
Maximum speed, of a vehicle with oversteer, for which the straight forward motion remains stable.
14.4.14 NEUTRAL CAR
Vehicle with an understeer coefficient equal to zero.
14.4.15 SHIMMY [WOBBLE]
Self-excited vibration in the steering mechanism of front wheels, typically with amplitude about the pivot line.
14.4.16 BICYCLE MODEL
Simplest possible model of a vehicle for describing its dynamics in the horizontal plane, consisting of a frame part and a steering part hinged to it.
14.4.17 TRAILER
Non-powered road vehicle for the carriage of goods, intended to be coupled to a motor vehicle.
14.4.18 SEMI-TRAILER
Trailer of which the weight is substantially carried by the truck when coupled to it.
14.4.19 ARTICULATED VEHICLE [TRUCK]
Motor vehicle designed to be coupled to a semi-trailer.
14.4.20 MULTI-TRAILER [ROAD TRAIN]
Motor vehicle and more than one trailer.
14.4.21 KING PIN
Joint connecting a semi-trailer to a motor vehicle.
14.4.22 TOW BAR
Device attached to a truck to connect to a trailer or another road vehicle.
14.4.23 AGV
Automated or automatic guided vehicle.

14.5


Transportational logistics

14.5.1 LOGISTICAL CHAIN [SUPPLY CHAIN]
System of organizations, people, technology, (production) activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
14.5.2 TRANSPORT MODE
General term for the different kinds of facilities that are used in transportation, directed to infrastructure (road, rail, air, sea, inland waterway, pipeline) and/or means of transport.
14.5.3 MODAL SHIFT
Changing of transport mode.
14.5.4 TRANSPORT UNIT
Means of transport and its loading.
14.5.5 LOADING UNIT [LOAD UNIT]
Box or platform, with dimensions and handling options that confirm a standard, to store cargo.
14.5.6 PAYLOAD
Mass of a load unit and its loading.
14.5.7 MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT
Transportation of goods or persons by two or more transport modes during one journey or trip.
14.5.8 INTERMODAL TRANSPORT
Transportation of goods in one and the same load unit or road vehicle, which uses successively two or more transport modes without handling the goods themselves in changing modes.
14.5.9 COMBINED TRANSPORT
Intermodal transport on a continent, where the major part of the journey is by rail or inland waterway, restricting the use of roads to the initial and final leg.
14.5.10 PALLET
Load unit as a platform.
14.5.11 EURO PALLET
Pallet with standardized dimensions 800x1200 mm that can be handled by a fork lift truck.
14.5.12 INDUSTRY PALLET
Pallet with standardized dimensions 1000x1200 mm that can be handled by a fork lift truck.
14.5.13 COLLO MODULE
Standardized package box with floor dimensions of 600x400 mm, or a whole division of this dimension.
14.5.14 ULD
Unit Load Device: load unit used for aircraft cargo.
14.5.15 (FREIGHT) CONTAINER
Generic term for a box to carry freight for repeated use, usually stackable and fitted with devices for handling and securing.
14.5.16 MARITIME CONTAINER
Container with standardized dimensions according to ISO, strong enough to be stacked in a cellular ship and equipped with standardized corner castings for handling and securing.
14.5.17 TEU
Twenty foot Equivalent Unit: freight unit, based on the maritime container with a length of 20 feet, to measure the volume of containerized transport.
14.5.18 REEFER
Frigid maritime container.
14.5.19 LAND CONTAINER
Container for use in continental multimodal transport, usually rail-road transport.
14.5.20 SWAP BODY
Land container, optimized for road vehicle dimensions, frequently equipped with folding legs on which the load unit stands when not on the vehicle.
14.5.21 AIR CONTAINER
Container conforming to standards laid down for transportation by aircraft.
14.5.22 ITU
Intermodal Transport Unit: containers, swap bodies and semi-trailers suitable for intermodal transport.
14.5.23 RORO
Roll-On Roll-Off, term used for road vehicles for modal shift to train or ship.
14.5.24 ROLLING ROAD
Transportation of complete road vehicles on trains, using roro techniques.
14.5.25 FIFO {LIFO}
First {Last}-In First-Out, term used for storage of load units.
14.5.26 LOGISTIC SIMULATION
Study of the behaviour of a logistics system, regarding the states of its elements and their interactions in relation with an operational objective.
14.5.27 TRANSPONDER [TAG]
Device for responding to a transmitted radio signal, to exchange information.
14.5.28 RFID
Radio-Frequency IDentification; method, using a transmitted radio signal of predestined frequency, to exchange information between an antenna and a tag.
14.5.29 SEMAPHORE
Signal to control AGV traffic.
14.5.30 PRINCIPAL
Person or company who authorizes a transport action during any stage of a trip.
14.5.31 CONSIGNEE
Person or company entitled to take delivery of the goods.
14.5.32 SHIPPER [SENDER]
Person or company who puts goods in the care of a forwarder to be delivered to a consignee.
14.5.33 AGENT
Actor in a model that (generally) solves an optimization problem.
14.5.34 AGENT, FORWARDING [FREIGHT FORWARDER]
Intermediary person or company who arranges for the carriage of goods and associated services on behalf of a shipper.
14.5.35 CARRIER
Person or company responsible for the carriage of goods, either directly or using a third party.
14.5.36 STUFFING {STRIPPING}
Loading {unloading} of cargo into {from} a container.
14.5.37 BARGE
Flat-bottomed boat, usually not self-propelled and built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
14.5.39 HUB [NODAL POINT]
Central point for the collection, sorting, transhipment and distribution of goods for a particular area.
14.5.40 FEEDER
Vessel for short sea shipping of containers.
14.5.41 FEEDER SERVICE
Hub service for containers in short sea shipping.