11

Biomechanics

English

11.1


General

11.1.1 ALLOMETRY
Quantitative relation between a part and the whole or another part as the organism increases in size (represented by body mass), or in a series of related organisms that differ in size (represented by body mass).
11.1.2 ANTHROPOMETRIC
Related to the dimensions and weights (and their derivatives like mass moment of inertia) of human body segments.
11.1.3 BALANCE
Ability to control equilibrium and defined orientation in space.
11.1.4 BIOMECHANICS
Interdisciplinary field of science dealing with causes and effects of motions and forces acting upon and within biological systems (e. g. human beings, animals, plants)
11.1.5 BIOMIMETICS
Scientific objective directed to development of technical systems by using information and function principles from biological systems.
11.1.6 BONE
Pressure-resistant and stiff connective tissue that forms the endoskeleton of the body of vertebrates, composed of a matrix of collagen fibres interspersed with bone cells and bone salts.
11.1.7 CAPILLARY
Small vessel of both the circulatory and lymphatic systems enclosed by a single-layer wall (the minimum diameter of which is supposed to be determined by the dimensions of particles of the passing fluid).
11.1.8 CELL
Functional and structural unit of all organisms, consisting of a nucleus, cytoplasm containing organelles, and a surrounding membrane
11.1.9 CHITIN
Nitrogenous polysaccharide of specific texture that forms a base for an exoskeleton of an invertebrate with locally different compliance.
11.1.10 COHERENCE
In organisms unbroken material connection of all organs involved in transmission of force and motion, based on macro-molecular structure.
11.1.11 COLLAGEN
Protein that is principal constituent of tension-resistant fibrous connective tissue (as occurs in tendons).
11.1.12 DEFORMATION, ISOCHORIC
Deformation of a body during which the volume of the body remains constant.
11.1.13 EXTREMITY
Body part or appendage protruding beyond the trunk and used for locomotion and idiomotion (e. g. manipulation)..
11.1.14 FIBRE
Slender, threadlike structure consisting of one cell (e.g. in nerves) or of a fusion of numerous cells (e.g. in skeletal muscles) or of extra-cellular substances (e.g. in connective tissue).
11.1.15 FIBRIL
Threadlike structural element of cells or connective tissue, mostly as component of fibres.
11.1.16 FILAMENT
Threadlike molecular structural element of fibrils
11.1.17 FLUID
Aggregate of matter in which the particles are able to flow past each other without limit and without fracture planes forming, and in which shear stress caused by deformation is gradually removed by flow.
11.1.18 FLUID, BINGHAM-PLASTIC
Fluid in which a certain shear stress must be exceeded before flow starts; thereafter the viscosity remains constant as in a Newtonian fluid.
11.1.19 FLUID, DILATANT
Fluid in which viscosity increases as shear velocity increases
11.1.20 FLUID, NEWTONIAN
Fluid in which the state of shear stress at any point is proportional to shear velocity at that point; the proportionality factor is the viscosity coefficient.
11.1.21 FLUID, PSEUDOPLASTIC
Fluid the viscosity of which decreases instantaneously with an increase in shear velocity
11.1.22 FLUID, RHEOPECTIC
Fluid whose viscosity under shear stress increases with respect to time.
11.1.23 FLUID, THIXOTROPIC
Fluid whose viscosity under (vibratory) shear stress decreases and increases again when left standing.
11.1.24 FLUIDITY
Reciprocal of viscosity
11.1.25 GRADIENT OF VELOCITY
In a fluid rate of change of velocityof flow (of a point) with respect to the thickness of a given layer.
11.1.26 HANAVAN'S MODEL
Model of human body, made up of fifteen simple geometric solids representing human body segments: head, upper torso, lower torso and each two for upper arms, lower arms, hands, upper legs, lower legs, feet.
11.1.27 KINESIOLOGY
Branch of science dedicated to human movement, blending aspects of psychology, physiology, motor learning and biomechanics.
11.1.28 LIMB
Articulated extremity, such as leg or arm.
11.1.29 LOADING, COMBINED
Simultaneous action of more than one external force or torque.
11.1.30 METABOLISM
Sum of all chemical and accompanying physical processes that serve for resorption, transformation and excretion of substances necessary for maintenance of structure and function of an organism.
11.1.31 METHOD, SEGMENTAL
Procedure for determining total body centre of mass location based on the weighted averaging center of mass locations of the individual body segments.
11.1.32 MORPHOLOGY
Branch of biology that deals with structure and form of an organism at any stage of its (phylogenetic and ontogenetic) life history.
11.1.33 ORGAN
Part of the body, composed of more than one tissue, that forms a structural unit responsible for particular functions.
11.1.34 ORGANISM
Biological system consisting of one cell or of a group of differentiated interdependent cells or organs, physically separated from its surroundings, and autonomously exerting vital functions using energy transformed endogenicly by metabolism.
11.1.35 OSMOSIS
Diffusion of a fluidic solution through a semi-permeable membrane balancing concentration of dissolved particles at either side.
11.1.36 POINT, YIELD [ELASTIC LIMIT]
Point on the load-deformation curve past which deformation is permanent.
11.1.37 SHEAR VELOCITY
Gradient of velocity in the flow of a plane layer of a fluid.
11.1.38 TENSEGRITY
Property of self-stabilization of a mechanical system which is composed of supporting elements under compressive force which are connected with each other by tensed-up materially coherent elements under tensile force. Note: The term "tensegrity", created by R. B. Fuller (1895-1983), refers to "tension" and "integrity".
11.1.39 TEXTURE
Spatial arrangement of molecules of a biological substance that effects mechanical anisotropy.
11.1.40 TISSUE
Collection of cells of the same or different kind specialised to perform particular functions.
11.1.41 TISSUE, CONNECTIVE
Tissue that supports, binds, separates or wraps other tissues or organs.
11.1.42 TURGESCENCE
Expansion of volume of a cell or tissue caused by increasing content of liquid.
11.1.43 TURGOR
Tautness of tissue of organisms generated by osmosis or contractive effects.
11.1.44 VISCOELASTIC
Having the ability to stretch or shorten over a finite interval of time.
11.1.45 VISCOELASTICITY
Property of a material which is viscous but also exhibits certain elastic properties (such as the ability to store energy of deformation), and in which the application of stress gives rise to strain that approaches slowly its equilibrium value.
11.1.46 VISCOSITY
Flow resistance of a fluid caused by molecular interaction when subjected to shear stress; coefficient of internal friction.
11.1.47 VISCOSITY, DYNAMIC
Ratio of shear stress to the gradient of velocity of a fluid.
11.1.48 VISCOSITY, KINEMATIC
Dynamic viscosity with respect to density of a fluid.
11.1.49 WOLFF'S LAW
Hypothesis that states that in an organism under long-term increasing load additional supporting substance (bone, chitin, cellulose) is locally laid down (apposition) where it is needed; bone can also be resorbed when load is decreasing (resorption).

11.2


Generation of motion and force

11.2.1 ACTION POTENTIAL
Electric potential between internal and external surface of a cell-membrane (e. g. of receptor cell, nerve cell, muscle fibre) that, having exceeded a specific threshold amount, undiminished extends over the membrane.
11.2.2 ACTIVATION
Neural excitation of a muscle fibre or a motor unit.
11.2.3 COMPONENT, CONTRACTILE
Muscle property enabling tension development by stimulated muscle fibres.
11.2.4 COMPONENT, DISLOCATING
Component of muscle force directed away from the joint related and weakening the effort of its joining forces.
11.2.5 COMPONENT, PARALLEL ELASTIC
Passive elastic property of muscle caused e.g. by compliance of muscle membranes.
11.2.6 COMPONENT, ROTARY
Component of muscle force acting perpendicular to the attached bones.
11.2.7 COMPONENT, SERIES ELASTIC
Passive elastic property of muscle caused e.g. by compliance of tendons.
11.2.8 COMPONENT, STABILIZING
Component of muscle force directed toward the joint related and increasing the effort of its joining forces.
11.2.9 CONTRACTION, AUXOTONIC
Contraction of a muscle during which both tension and length of muscle are changing.
11.2.10 CONTRACTION, CONCENTRIC
Shortening of a muscle under load.
11.2.11 CONTRACTION, ECCENTRIC
Lengthening (negative shortening) of a muscle under load.
11.2.12 CONTRACTION, ISOKINETIC
Contraction of a muscle in which the rate of change in length (or the speed) of the muscle remains constant.
11.2.13 CONTRACTION, ISOMETRIC
Contraction of a muscle in which the length of the muscle remains constant.
11.2.14 CONTRACTION, ISOTONIC
Contraction of a muscle in which the tension of the muscle remains constant.
11.2.15 CONTRACTION, TETANIC
Sustained contraction of muscle due to the fusion of many twitches of individual muscle fibres following one another in rapid succession.
11.2.16 CROSS BRIDGE
Temporary, flexible molecular connection of (myosin) filaments and (actin) filaments parallel to each other, triggered by activation of muscle fibre able to cause longitudinal sliding motion of the filaments under effect of inner-molecular bending forces.
11.2.17 CYCLE, STRETCH-SHORTENING
Eccentric contraction followed immediately by concentric contraction.
11.2.18 DISTRIBUTION [MUSCLE CO-OPERATING] PROBLEM
Calculation of internal forces (including muscle forces) acting on the skeletal system in joints using the known resultant joint forces and moments. (The problem usually is statically indeterminate; the approach used most often to solve it is mathematical optimisation).
11.2.19 ELECTROMYOGRAM (EMG)
Record of spatial and temporal summation of action potentials of a group of motor units during muscular contraction.
11.2.20 EXTENSOR
Muscle that during contraction increases the angle between the longitudinal axes of two articulated limbs.
11.2.21 FIBRE ARRANGEMENT, PENNATE
Pattern of fibres within a muscle with fibres attaching to one or more tendons by aponeuroses and running at a certain angle to the line of action of the muscle force.
11.2.22 FLEXOR
Muscle that during contraction decreases the angle between the longitudinal axes of two articulated limbs.
11.2.23 FORCE-LENGTH CHARACTERISTIC
Graph showing force produced by a muscle as it changes length about its rest length, usually measured under isometric conditions, for a given level of muscle activation.
11.2.24 FORCE-VELOCITY CHARACTERISTIC
Graph showing a decrease of tension as muscle shortens and increase as it lengthens; it must be measured as muscle shortens or lengthens at a given muscle length and at a given level of muscle activation.
11.2.25 HILL'S CURVE
Hyperbolic relationship to approximate the empirically found force-velocity characteristic of muscle (or a group of agonistic muscles) during isotonic contraction near resting length.
11.2.26 HUXLEY'S CURVE
Force-length characteristic of a sarcomere hypothetically showing the force developed with respect to the overlap of the active filaments.
11.2.27 INHIBITION, RECIPROCAL
Inhibition of the antagonistic muscles resulting from activation of agonistic muscle spindles.
11.2.28 MOTONEURON
Nerve that transmits activation signals to fibres of skeletal muscles.
11.2.29 MOTOR END-PLATE
Synapsis between motoneuron and cell membrane of muscle tissue.
11.2.30 MOTOR UNIT
Smallest subunit of a muscle consisting of a set of muscle fibres that are activated by the same motor neuron and thus can be controlled separately by the neural system.
11.2.31 MUSCLE
Tissue composed of contractive cells which convert energy gained by metabolism into work and by contraction and shortening causes movement of an organ or part of the body (agonistic muscle) or acts against that movement (antagonistic muscle).
11.2.32 MUSCLE FIBRE, FAST TWITCH
Skeletal muscle fibre that reaches peak tension relatively quickly.
11.2.33 MUSCLE FIBRE, SLOW TWITCH
Skeletal muscle fibre that reaches peak tension relatively slowly.
11.2.34 MUSCLE SPINDLE
Sensory fibrous tension receptor within muscles that in stretching provokes reflex contraction and inhibits tension development in antagonistic muscles.
11.2.35 MUSCLE, AGONISTIC
Muscle that initiates and carries out motion.
11.2.36 MUSCLE, ANATOMICAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF
Maximum cross-section of a muscle, measured orthogonally to the line of action of muscle force.
11.2.37 MUSCLE, ANTAGONISTIC
Muscle that opposes the action of agonistic muscles.
11.2.38 MUSCLE, BICIPITAL
Muscle having two origins or insertions.
11.2.39 MUSCLE, BIPENNIFORM
Feathered muscle the fibres of which connect two parallel tendons of same direction of tensile force with one tendon in between of the opposite direction of tensile force.
11.2.40 MUSCLE, CARDIAC
Muscle that constitutes the walls of the heart and is composed of a network of branching elongated cells (fibres) whose junctions with neighbouring cells are marked by irregular transverse bands and the contractions of which are multiaxially directed.
11.2.41 MUSCLE, DIGASTRIC
Muscle having two serial arranged parts separated by a tendon.
11.2.42 MUSCLE, FEATHERED
Muscle with pennate fibre arrangement.
11.2.43 MUSCLE, FUSIFORM
Muscle which is spindle-shaped and tapering to the end.
11.2.44 MUSCLE, INSERTION OF
Point of distal attachment of a muscle to a limb or part of the body to be moved.
11.2.45 MUSCLE, MULTICIPITAL
Muscle having several origins or insertions.
11.2.46 MUSCLE, MULTIJOINT
Muscle passing over more than one joint.
11.2.47 MUSCLE, NEGATIVE WORK OF
Work done during an eccentric contraction, when the muscle moment of force acts in the opposite direction as the angular velocity of the joint (if the moment due to external load is bigger than the muscle moment).
11.2.48 MUSCLE, ORBICULAR
Muscle the fibres of which are arranged approximately like a torus.
11.2.49 MUSCLE, ORIGIN OF
Point of proximal attachment of a muscle to a limb or part of the body.
11.2.50 MUSCLE, PHYSIOLOGICAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (PCA) OF
Sum of the cross-sections of all fibres of a muscle, determined by a face that orthogonally intersects the individual longitudinal axes of all fibres.
11.2.51 MUSCLE, POSITIVE WORK OF
Work done during a concentric contraction, when the muscle moment of force acts in the same direction as the angular velocity of the joint.
11.2.52 MUSCLE, SMOOTH [INVOLUNTARY], [VISCERAL]
Muscle that is composed of spindle-shaped cells within a network of connective tissue and under control of the autonomous nervous system produces slow long-term contractions of which the individual is unaware.
11.2.53 MUSCLE, SKELETAL [VOLUNTARY] [STRIATED]
Muscle attached to the skeleton, responsible for the movement of bones under voluntary control and composed of parallel bundles of multinucleate fibres which reveal cross-banding when viewed by optically magnifying means.
11.2.54 MUSCLE, SYNERGISTIC
Muscle that together with one or more other agonistic muscles moves a part of the body in the same direction.
11.2.55 MUSCLE, UNIPENNATE
Feathered muscle the fibres of which connect the tendon running to the origin with the approximately parallel tendon running to the insertion.
11.2.56 RECRUITMENT
Proportion of activated muscle fibres of the entire potential of the muscle to contracting and developing force.
11.2.57 SARCOMERE
Structural unit of muscle tissue that contracts under effect of molecular forces between axially movable filaments.
11.2.58 SLIDING THEORY OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
Theory after which development of muscle force is caused by common actions of numerous cross bridges overlapped in time.
11.2.59 STRETCHING, ACTIVE
Stretching of muscles, tendons, and ligaments produced by active development of tension in antagonistic muscles.
11.2.60 STRETCHING, PASSIVE
Stretching of muscles, tendons, and ligaments produced by a stretching force other than tension in the antagonistic muscles.
11.2.61 SYNAPSIS
Isolated connection of a nerve or receptor cell with other cells (e. g. of nerves, muscles, glands) that transmits neural excitation by chemical or electrical interaction.
11.2.62 TONUS
Continuous involuntary basic state of tension of a muscle that secures support and attitude of an organism, generated by moderate alternating activation of motor units.
11.2.63 TWITCH
Variation with time of force developed by a muscle fibre or a motor unit in response to a single neural stimulus.

11.3


Transmission of motion and force

11.3.1 AMPHIARTHROSIS
Slightly movable joint in which the bony surfaces are connected materially coherent by fibro-cartilage or hyaline cartilage.
11.3.2 APONEUROSIS
Thin tension-tight fibrous sheet that continues a tendon in feathered muscles and has a wide area of attachment of muscle fibres.
11.3.3 BURSA
Small sac of fibrous tissue that is lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovia to reduce pressure or friction in joints and in places where ligaments and tendons pass over bones (e.g. at hypomochlia).
11.3.4 CARTILAGE
Compliant connective tissue composed of an intercellular matrix combined with clusters of cells that is capable of withstanding considerable pressure due to its fibre arcades structure.
11.3.5 CARTILAGE, ELASTIC
Type of cartilage in which elastic fibres are distributed in the intercellular matrix.
11.3.6 CARTILAGE, FIBRO-
Tough type of cartilage the matrix of which is filled with dense bundles of fibres that are oriented in a texture.
11.3.7 CARTILAGE, HYALINE
Type of cartilage in which fine collagen fibres are embedded.
11.3.8 CONDYLUS
Articulating convex appendage of a bone or of a chitin covering of a limb.
11.3.9 DIARTHROSIS [SYNOVIAL JOINT]
Type of joint in which articulating bones covered with cartilage are force-closed and relatively movable in an inter-articular space.
11.3.10 FIBRE ARCADES
Arched arrangement of collagen fibres in hyaline cartilage as a result of which compression of cartilage is partly transformed into bending and accompanying tension.
11.3.11 FULCRUM
Point of support or axis about which a lever may be made to rotate.
11.3.12 HYPOMOCHLION
Appropriately shaped, tendon-supporting spot at a bone that withstands compression force caused by changing direction of the line of action of the tendon at a certain angle.
11.3.13 JOINT
Connection of adjacent parts that allow for their relative movement (in a certain degree of freedom).
11.3.14 JOINT FLEXIBILITY
Term indicating the relative ranges of motion allowed to a joint.
11.3.15 JOINT STABILITY
Term indicating the ability of a joint to resist abnormal displacement of the articulating bones.
11.3.16 JOINT, BALL-AND-SOCKET [SPHERICAL]
Diarthrosis in which a ball-shaped head articulates with a concave surface allowing relative angular movements about three separate concurrent axes.
11.3.17 JOINT, CONDYLOID [ELLIPSOID]
Diarthrosis in which a condylus fits into an ellipsoidical cavity allowing angular movement about two main axes.
11.3.18 JOINT, HINGE [GINGLYMUS]
Diarthrosis that by means of form guidance combined with force guidance allows angular movement about one axis.
11.3.19 JOINT, INCONGRUENT
Diarthrosis in which the shape of the area of contact of both the articulating surfaces is changing during relative motion.
11.3.20 JOINT, PLANAR CONTACT
Diarthrosis in which the articulating surfaces of the bones are contacting in a common plane and allow small translational movements in this plane and angular movement about an axis perpendicular to it.
11.3.21 JOINT, SADDLE
Diarthrosis in which both the articulating surfaces of the bones are reciprocally saddle-shaped, contacting each other at the bottom of the saddle and allowing relative angular movements about two main axes.
11.3.22 JOINT, TROCHOID [PIVOT]
Diarthrosis in which a cylindrical head in a related cavity allows relative angular movement about an axis approximately in direction of the limb axis.
11.3.23 LIGAMENT
Flexible, scarcely stretchable band of fibrous connective tissue that links two bones together at a joint, maintaining coupling and permitting its movement in certain directions.
11.3.24 LIGAMENTS, COLLATERALE
Pair of approximately parallel ligaments lying in planes orthogonal to the axis of rotation at opposite sides of a hinge joint.
11.3.25 LIGAMENTS, CRUCIATE
Pair of two crossed ligaments lying in planes orthogonal to the axis of rotation at opposite sides of a hinge joint and helping to prevent excessive relative glide.
11.3.26 MENISCUS
Cartilaginous disc located between distinctly incongruent articulating surfaces.
11.3.27 MOTION SEGMENT
Two adjacent vertebrae and the associated joints and soft tissue, forming a functional unit of the spine.
11.3.28 POSITION, CLOSE-PACKED
Joint orientation for which the contact between the articulating bone surfaces is maximum.
11.3.29 PRESTRESS
Stress on bones caused by tension in resting ligaments.
11.3.30 SKELETON
Rigid framework of, compared with other parts of the body, robust material (bone, chitin, connective tissue) that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and permits application of muscle forces at muscle origins and muscle insertions.
11.3.31 SKELETON, CYTO-
Tensed-up framework of a cell composed of protein fibres (intercellular filaments) and plasma filling.
11.3.32 SKELETON, ENDO-
Bony skeleton that lies inside a body and has muscle origins and muscle insertions on the outside of the bones (as in vertebrates).
11.3.33 SKELETON, EXO-
Skeleton that envelops a body and has muscle origins and muscle insertions on the inside of the parts of the skeleton (as in arthropodes).
11.3.34 SKELETON, HYDRO- [HYDROSTATIC]
Compliant supporting structure composed of closed liquid-filled chambers enclosed by contractive tissue that gives form to the structure and withstands muscle forces due to their hydrostatic pressure (as in coelenterata).
11.3.35 SYNARTHROSIS
Slightly movable joint in which the bony surfaces are connected materially coherent by fibrous tissue.
11.3.36 SYNOVIAL FLUID [SYNOVIA]
Lubricating pseudoplastic and thixotropic fluid secreted by the synovial membrane, that surrounds joint surfaces or fills a bursa or a tendon sheath.
11.3.37 SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE [SYNOVIUM]
Membrane that forms the sac enclosing a joint or a tendon and secretes the lubricating synovial fluid.
11.3.38 TENDON
Flexible, restricted stretchable cord, consisting of numerous parallel bundles of collagen fibres, that serves to transmit the force of a muscle to the skeleton.
11.3.39 TENDON SHEATH
Tendon-wrapping double-layered sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid providing minimum friction at the tendon.

11.4


Movement of body and body parts

11.4.1 ABDUCTION
Movement of a limb or any other body part directed away from the median plane.
11.4.2 ADDUCTION
Movement of a limb or any other body part directed toward the median plane.
11.4.3 ATTACK, ANGLE OF
1. Angle between the longitudinal axis of a body and the direction of the fluid flow. 2. Angle between the straight line through the center of mass and the ground contact point of a body and its projection to the ground.
11.4.4 BIPED
Animal having two legs, or walking machine having two pedipulators.
11.4.5 BOUND
Asymmetrical gait of a quadruped in which each pair of feet has no or relatively slight lead.
11.4.6 BOUND, HALF
Bound that has a moderate fore lead but little or no hind lead.
11.4.7 CYCLE OF MOVEMENT (OF A LEG)
Regular sequence of a stand phase and a swing phase during locomotion.
11.4.8 DEKAPOD
Animal having ten legs, or walking machine having ten pedipulators
11.4.9 DRAG
Resistance force that slows the motion of a body through a fluid.
11.4.10 DRAG, COEFFICIENT OF
Non-dimensional number that is an index of body's ability to generate fluid resistance.
11.4.11 DRAG, PROPULSIVE
Force acting in the direction of a body's motion in a fluid if the velocity of the flow exceeds the velocity of the body.
11.4.12 FOOTFALL
Placing a foot on the ground during legged locomotion.
11.4.13 GAIT [FOOTFALL PATTERN]
Mode of legged locomotion determined by contact intervals and phase relationship of the feet
11.4.14 GAIT, ASYMMETRICAL
Gait in which the footfalls of the two feet of a pair are unevenly spaced in time, e. g. gallop and bound.
11.4.15 GAIT, RUNNING
Gait in which each foot is on the ground less than half the cycle of movement.
11.4.16 GAIT, SYMMETRICAL
Gait in which the footfalls of the two feet of a pair are evenly spaced in time, e.g. walk, pace, trot.
11.4.17 GAIT, WALKING
Gait in which each foot is on the ground half or more of the cycle of movement.
11.4.18 GALLOP
Asymmetrical gait of a quadruped (particularly a horse) with a lead both fore and hind.
11.4.19 GALLOP, ROTARY
Gallop, in which fore and hind leads are contralateral.
11.4.20 GALLOP, TRANSVERSE
Gallop, in which fore and hind leads are ipsilateral.
11.4.21 HEXAPOD
Animal having six legs, or walking machine having six pedipulators.
11.4.22 IDIOMOTION
Autonomous, internally driven change of posture of human beings or animals during which base of support and centre of mass of the body are not displaced or displaced within limits small in relation to body size.
11.4.23 LAYER, BOUNDARY
Layer of fluid immediately adjacent to a body.
11.4.24 LEAD
In an asymmetrical gait the distance between the footfalls of a pair of feet, measured between the leading foot that strikes the ground last and the trailing foot that strikes the ground first.
11.4.25 LIFT
Force acting on a body in a fluid opposite to the force of gravity.
11.4.26 LIFT, COEFFICIENT OF
Non-dimensional number that is an index of body's ability to generate lift.
11.4.27 LOCOMOTION
Autonomous, internally driven change of location of human beings, animals or machines during which base of support and centre of mass of the body are displaced.
11.4.28 LOCOMOTION, ANGUILLIFORM
Undulatory aquatic locomotion of a long, cylindrically shaped flexible body, caused by regular, transverse deformations of the whole body, metachronally travelling along the trunk (e.g. eel or water snake).
11.4.29 LOCOMOTION, APEDAL
Locomotion without legs and feet, caused by regular deformation of the body (e.g. serpentine locomotion, peristaltic locomotion).
11.4.30 LOCOMOTION, AQUATIC
Locomotion of animals in water
11.4.31 LOCOMOTION, ARBOREAL
Pedal locomotion on or at a randomly shaped and orientated substrate (e.g. a tree), in which footfall is accompanied by securing contact to the substrate (e.g. by prehension).
11.4.32 LOCOMOTION, AVIAN
Locomotion of animals in air.
11.4.33 LOCOMOTION, CARANGIFORM
Aquatic locomotion of fish, caused by lateral deformation of tail and caudal fin of the fish (e.g. trout or salmon).
11.4.34 LOCOMOTION, OSTRACIIFORM
Aquatic locomotion of fish, caused by lateral oscillation of the caudal fin only (e.g. in Ostracionidae).
11.4.35 LOCOMOTION, PEDAL [LEGGED]
Locomotion by means of legs which are regularly lifted off, and put down on, the ground under variation of the relative angle between the longitudinal axes of the individual legs and the trunk.
11.4.36 LOCOMOTION, PERISTALTIC
Locomotion of a flexible and tensile tubular body of segments of a hydroskeleton, in which each segment is deformed alternately by circularly and longitudinally acting muscles whose interaction passes metachronally along the trunk (e.g. locomotion of an earth worm)
11.4.37 LOCOMOTION, SERPENTINE
Undulatory locomotion of a flexible, tubular, segmented body with endoskeleton, in which each segment is deformed transversely by axially acting muscles whose action alternately and regularly bends the longitudinal axis of the body and passes metachronally along the trunk (e.g. locomotion of a snake).
11.4.38 LOCOMOTION, TERRESTRIAL
Locomotion of a body changing contact with the surface of a resistant substrate (e.g. ground).
11.4.39 LOCOMOTION, UNDULATORY
Locomotion caused by wavelike, in direction of motion metachronally propagating deformation of the whole body or single flat body parts.
11.4.40 MANIPULATION
Idiomotoric use of the hand for prehension and controlled movement of objects relative to the surroundings.
11.4.41 METACHRONAL
Of or pertaining to a wave of successive events of the same kind (particularly to a wave of muscular contraction passing over the body surface of certain animals by means of which locomotion is accomplished).
11.4.42 OCTOPOD
Animal having eight legs, or walking machine having eight pedipulators
11.4.43 PACE [RACK] [AMBLE]
Symmetrical gait of a quadruped (particularly a horse), in which the ipsilateral legs move in phase.
11.4.44 PHASE, STAND [STANCE] [CONTACT INTERVAL] [SUPPORT PHASE] [POWER STROKE]
Phase of the movement of a leg in which it is on the ground supporting the body and, by relative retraction, propelling the body.
11.4.45 PHASE, SWING [RECOVERY PHASE] [RETURN STROKE]
Phase of the movement of a leg in which it is lifted off the ground and, by relative protraction, swung into the position of the following stand phase.
11.4.46 PREHENSION
Co-ordinated movement of fingers that involves seizing, grasping, holding and releasing of an object during idiomotion or locomotion.
11.4.47 PRONATION
1. Turning the forearm so that the palm of the hand is down or toward the back. 2. Turning the sole of the foot outward with the lateral margin of the foot elevated.
11.4.48 PRONK
Bound in which all four footfalls are in unison.
11.4.49 PROTRACTION
Pulling forwards (e.g. of a leg)
11.4.50 QUADRUPED [TETRAPOD)
Animal having four legs, or walking machine having four pedipulators
11.4.51 RETRACTION
Pulling backwards (e.g. of a leg)
11.4.52 SINGLEFOOT [WALK]
Symmetrical gait of a quadruped, in which consecutive footfalls of the four feet are about equally spaced in time.
11.4.53 SINGLEFOOT IN DIAGONAL SEQUENCE
Singlefoot, in which each fore footfall follows that of the contralateral hind footfall.
11.4.54 SINGLEFOOT IN LATERAL SEQUENCE
Singlefoot, in which each fore footfall follows that of the ipsilateral hind footfall.
11.4.55 STEP LENGTH
Distance which the centre of mass of a body moves forward during the stand phase.
11.4.56 STRIDE LENGTH
Distance which the centre of mass of a body moves forward during each complete cycle of movement of a leg.
11.4.57 SUPINATION
1. Turning the forearm so that the palm of the hand is upward. 2. Turning the sole of the foot inward with the medial margin of the foot elevated.
11.4.58 SUPPORT, BASE OF
Area bound by the outermost regions of contact between a body and support surface.
11.4.59 SWING LENGTH
Distance which the centre of mass of a body moves forward during the stand phase of a leg.
11.4.60 TROT
Symmetrical gait of a quadruped (particularly a horse), in which the diagonally contralateral legs move in phase, and the ipsilateral legs move out of phase.

11.5


Situation and orientation in body

11.5.1 ANTERIOR
Situated near or toward the front of the body.
11.5.2 AXES, PRINCIPAL
Three mutually perpendicular axes passing through the centre of mass that are referred to respectively as the longitudinal axes, sagittal axes, and transverse axes.
11.5.3 AXIS, LONGITUDINAL
Line of intersection of median plane and the central frontal plane.
11.5.4 AXIS, SAGITTAL
Line of intersection of median plane and the central transverse plane.
11.5.5 AXIS, TRANSVERSE [FRONTAL]
Line of intersection of the central frontal plane and the central transverse plane.
11.5.6 CAUDAL
Relating to, or situated at, the tail end of the body.
11.5.7 CRANIAL
Relating to, or situated at, the head end of the body.
11.5.8 DISTAL
Situated away from the central region of a body toward its periphery.
11.5.9 DORSAL
Relating to, or situated at, or close to the back of the body, or to the posterior part of an organ.
11.5.10 INFERIOR
The lower of two structures.
11.5.11 LATERAL
Relating to or situated at the side of a body or an organ
11.5.12 LATERAL, COL-
Situated at the same side or in pairs, neighbouring
11.5.13 LATERAL, CONTRA-
Relating to the opposite side
11.5.14 LATERAL, IPSI-
Relating to the same side
11.5.15 MEDIAL
Toward the central region of a body or an organ.
11.5.16 MEDIAN
Relating to, or situated in the central region of the body or an organ.
11.5.17 PALMAR
Relating to, or situated at the palm of the hand
11.5.18 PLANE, FRONTAL
Plane dividing a body into dorsal and ventral parts.
11.5.19 PLANE, MEDIAN
Plane symmetrically dividing a body into right and left halves.
11.5.20 PLANE, SAGITTAL
Median plane or any plane parallel thereto.
11.5.21 PLANE, TRANSVERSE
Plane that extends or lies in a crosswise direction.
11.5.22 PLANES, CARDINAL
Three imaginary perpendicular reference planes that divide the body in half by mass of the body.
11.5.23 PLANTAR
Relating to the inferior surface of the foot.
11.5.24 POSTERIOR
Situated toward the back of the body.
11.5.25 PROXIMAL
Situated toward the central region of a body.
11.5.26 SUPERIOR
Situated above another organ or structure.
11.5.27 VENTRAL
Relating to, or situated at, or close to the belly side of a body, or to the anterior part of an organ.