Scientific and engineering field of the design, construction and application of robots
Mechanical system under automatic control that performs operations such as handling and locomotion.
Robot that resembles a human being in physical appearance.
Robot with a manipulator containing rotary joints similar to those of a human arm.
Robot remotely controlled by a human operator who observes the actions of the robot and acts as the feedback link in the control process.
Simple robot for transferring objects from one particular location to another.
Robot with stop points only at each end of the stroke of each of its actuators.
Robot which behaves by means of artificial intelligence.
Robot that operates under the control of a teach-in programme.
Robot that is mounted on a platform which moves under automatic control.
Robot that performs locomotion functions similar to human beings or animals.
Articulated leg of a walking machine.
Device for gripping and the controlled movement of objects.
Manipulator operated by a person without power assistance.
Teleoperator in which a slave manipulator mimics the motion of a geometrically similar master.
Master-slave manipulator in which the force necessary to move the master equals the force exerted by the slave.
Manipulator that is controlled by a programme stored in its memory.
Manipulator which performs a pre-determined motion the pattern of which cannot be changed without physical alteration.
Hardware and software of a robot, including of devices for manipulation and locomotion, end-effectors, power supply, controllers, together with any equipment with which the robot is directly interfaced.
Device which substitutes for lost manipulative ability or lost mobility of human limbs.
Mechanism with joints that correspond to those of the human body and which move with the body to which it is attached
Body (link) of a robot that carries the first joint (s) of the kinematic chain of a manipulator or pedipulator.
Bridge-like structure along which a suspended robot moves.
Joint between the base and an arm of a manipulator.
Set of interconnected links with powered joints which supports, positions and moves the end-effector of a manipulator.
Link of an articulated arm that is connected directly to the shoulder.
Link of an articulated arm that is connected to the wrist.
Joint between the upper arm and the forearm.
Set of rotary joints between arm and end-effector of a manipulator.
Device attached to the distal end of a robot arm by which objects can be grasped or acted upon.
End-effector which grasps, holds and releases objects.
Self-contained assembly of robot elements which can be connected in various ways with other, not necessarily identical, modules to form a robot.
Hand-held control unit.
REMOTE CENTRE COMPLIANCE
Compliant device used as an interface between an end-effector and the object that it is handling, particularly in assembly operations.
Manipulator that controls the motion of its end-effector by means of at least two kinematic chains going from the end - effector towards the frame.
WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system that is stationary relative to earth.
RELATIVE COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system that can move relative to earth.
BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system fixed relative to the base.
TASK COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system referred to the task to be executed by a robot.
JOINT COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system fixed in one member at a joint.
CARTESIAN COORDINATE ROBOT
Robot whose major axes form a cartesian coordinate system. Analagous definitions hold for: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE ROBOT and SPHERICAL COORDINATE ROBOT.
REDUNDANT MOBILITY (OF A ROBOT)
Amount by which the degree of freedom of a robot exceeds the number of independent variables that are necessary to define the task to be performed.
Ability of a robot with redundant mobility to solve a task by using various combinations of movements of its links.
MAJOR [PRIMARY] AXES
Axes of the joints of a robot arm that are needed to move a reference point on its wrist into any position within the working range.
MINOR [SECONDARY] AXES
Axes of the joints of a wrist that are needed to move the end-effector into any orientation relative to the robot arm.
Space defined by a vector whose components are joint variables.
Surface or surfaces that bound the working space.
Range of any variable for normal operation of a robot.
WORKING SPACE [VOLUME]
Totality of points that can be reached by the reference point of a robot arm.
Point chosen for position reference in defining a pose.
Region between two parts of a robot, or between the robot and something other structure, wherein there is the possibility of either a human or another object being crushed.
Motion towards a face-down or inward attitude.
Angle between a line of sight and a horizontal plane.
Horizontal projection of the angle between a line of sight and a horizontal reference line.
Movement or manipulation of a rigid body into a pre-determined attitude.
Combination of position and attitude.
Degree of coincidence between required and actual positions.
Degree of coincidence between taught and playback positions.
Suspension of all movement of a robot during an operating sequence while power supply is maintained.
Vibration of a robot arm during or at the end of a movement.
Deflection of an end-effector when a load is removed.
Quantity that describes the relative motion between two consecutive links of a manipulator.
Special position of the robot links which implies a reduction of mobility of the end-effector.
Geometric transformation from working space into a space (cartesian space or joint space) where the manipulator is represented by a point and the obstacles are represented as forbidden regions.
Control of a robot by guiding its end effector through a desired sequence of poses and storing the coordinates of the poses in a memory.
Control by a system the programme or parameters of which change automatically in response to changes in the conditions under which the system operates.
Control to cause a reference point to take up a sequence of discrete positions.
Control to cause an object to take up a sequence of discrete poses.
Control to cause a reference point to follow a given continuous path.
Control of an end-effector by driving the actuators of a robot sequentially.
RESOLVED-MOTION RATE CONTROL
Control of the velocity vector of a reference point by the use of computed actuator velocities.
Control by a system whose programme and/or parameters change automatically according to the experience obtained during previous task cycles.
Control scheme of a robot whereby its behaviour is adjusted in accordance with information given by external sensors.
Control scheme whereby the mechanical impedance of a robot is adjusted in accordance with the task to be executed.
FORCE (FEEDBACK) CONTROL
Control in which the controlled variables are the contact forces between the end-effector of a manipulator and the environment.
Control of the end-effector of a manipulator such that its movements are controlled by position feedback and by force feedback.
Entering a programme into the memory of a robot by moving its end-effector through the series of poses that it is required to take up when the robot is operating.
Restriction of the speed of a robot during teaching to a value that would be safe, or otherwise suitable, for normal operation.
Writing and verifying a computer programme for the control of a robot on a computer that is independent of the operational computer of the robot.
Adaptive control in response to sensed forces.
Use of mechanical compliance in the end-effector of a robot arm.
Close to the body (away from the end-effector) of a robot arm.
Away from the base (towards the end-effector) of a robot.
Computation of the pose, motion and forces at the end-effector of a robot arm from given actuator forces, displacements, velocities and accelerations.
Computation of actuator forces, displacements, velocities and accelerations from given forces, pose and motion of the end-effector of a robot.
Sense concerned with the contact between an end-effector and an object.
Sense which perceives the reactive force between an object and the end-effector of a robot.
Sense which perceives sliding between the contacting surfaces of an end-effector and an object.
Sense which perceives whether an object is within a limit region or not.
Sensor which perceives information of environment as an optical image.
Capacity of a robot to use sensor data in algorithms which simulate human intelligence.