5

Robotics

English

5.1


Systems

5.1.1 ROBOTICS
Scientific and engineering field of the design, construction and application of robots
5.1.2 ROBOT
Mechanical system under automatic control that performs operations such as handling and locomotion.
5.1.3 ANDROID
Robot that resembles a human being in physical appearance.
5.1.4 ANTHROPOMORPHIC ROBOT
Robot with a manipulator containing rotary joints similar to those of a human arm.
5.1.5 TELEOPERATOR
Robot remotely controlled by a human operator who observes the actions of the robot and acts as the feedback link in the control process.
5.1.6 PICK-AND-PLACE ROBOT
Simple robot for transferring objects from one particular location to another.
5.1.7 FIXED-STOP ROBOT
Robot with stop points only at each end of the stroke of each of its actuators.
5.1.8 INTELLIGENT ROBOT
Robot which behaves by means of artificial intelligence.
5.1.9 PLAYBACK ROBOT
Robot that operates under the control of a teach-in programme.
5.1.10 MOBILE ROBOT
Robot that is mounted on a platform which moves under automatic control.
5.1.11 WALKING MACHINE
Robot that performs locomotion functions similar to human beings or animals.
5.1.12 PEDIPULATOR
Articulated leg of a walking machine.
5.1.13 MANIPULATOR
Device for gripping and the controlled movement of objects.
5.1.14 MANUAL MANIPULATOR
Manipulator operated by a person without power assistance.
5.1.15 MASTER-SLAVE MANIPULATOR
Teleoperator in which a slave manipulator mimics the motion of a geometrically similar master.
5.1.16 BILATERAL MANIPULATOR
Master-slave manipulator in which the force necessary to move the master equals the force exerted by the slave.
5.1.17 PROGRAMMABLE MANIPULATOR
Manipulator that is controlled by a programme stored in its memory.
5.1.18 FIXED-SEQUENCE MANIPULATOR
Manipulator which performs a pre-determined motion the pattern of which cannot be changed without physical alteration.
5.1.19 ROBOT SYSTEM
Hardware and software of a robot, including of devices for manipulation and locomotion, end-effectors, power supply, controllers, together with any equipment with which the robot is directly interfaced.
5.1.20 PROSTHETIC DEVICE
Device which substitutes for lost manipulative ability or lost mobility of human limbs.
5.1.21 EXOSKELETON
Mechanism with joints that correspond to those of the human body and which move with the body to which it is attached

5.2


Components

5.2.1 BASE
Body (link) of a robot that carries the first joint (s) of the kinematic chain of a manipulator or pedipulator.
5.2.2 GANTRY
Bridge-like structure along which a suspended robot moves.
5.2.3 SHOULDER
Joint between the base and an arm of a manipulator.
5.2.4 ARM
Set of interconnected links with powered joints which supports, positions and moves the end-effector of a manipulator.
5.2.5 UPPER ARM
Link of an articulated arm that is connected directly to the shoulder.
5.2.6 FOREARM
Link of an articulated arm that is connected to the wrist.
5.2.7 ELBOW
Joint between the upper arm and the forearm.
5.2.8 WRIST
Set of rotary joints between arm and end-effector of a manipulator.
5.2.9 END-EFFECTOR
Device attached to the distal end of a robot arm by which objects can be grasped or acted upon.
5.2.10 GRIPPER
End-effector which grasps, holds and releases objects.
5.2.11 MODULE
Self-contained assembly of robot elements which can be connected in various ways with other, not necessarily identical, modules to form a robot.
5.2.12 TEACH PENDANT
Hand-held control unit.
5.2.13 REMOTE CENTRE COMPLIANCE
Compliant device used as an interface between an end-effector and the object that it is handling, particularly in assembly operations.
5.2.14 PARALLEL MANIPULATOR
Manipulator that controls the motion of its end-effector by means of at least two kinematic chains going from the end - effector towards the frame.

5.3


Motion

5.3.1 WORLD COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system that is stationary relative to earth.
5.3.2 RELATIVE COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system that can move relative to earth.
5.3.3 BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system fixed relative to the base.
5.3.4 TASK COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system referred to the task to be executed by a robot.
5.3.5 JOINT COORDINATE SYSTEM
Coordinate system fixed in one member at a joint.
5.3.6 CARTESIAN COORDINATE ROBOT
Robot whose major axes form a cartesian coordinate system. Analagous definitions hold for: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATE ROBOT and SPHERICAL COORDINATE ROBOT.
5.3.7 REDUNDANT MOBILITY (OF A ROBOT)
Amount by which the degree of freedom of a robot exceeds the number of independent variables that are necessary to define the task to be performed.
5.3.8 MANOEUVRABILITY
Ability of a robot with redundant mobility to solve a task by using various combinations of movements of its links.
5.3.9 MAJOR [PRIMARY] AXES
Axes of the joints of a robot arm that are needed to move a reference point on its wrist into any position within the working range.
5.3.10 MINOR [SECONDARY] AXES
Axes of the joints of a wrist that are needed to move the end-effector into any orientation relative to the robot arm.
5.3.11 JOINT SPACE
Space defined by a vector whose components are joint variables.
5.3.12 WORKING ENVELOPE
Surface or surfaces that bound the working space.
5.3.13 WORKING RANGE
Range of any variable for normal operation of a robot.
5.3.14 WORKING SPACE [VOLUME]
Totality of points that can be reached by the reference point of a robot arm.
5.3.15 REFERENCE POINT
Point chosen for position reference in defining a pose.
5.3.16 PINCH ZONE
Region between two parts of a robot, or between the robot and something other structure, wherein there is the possibility of either a human or another object being crushed.
5.3.17 PRONATION
Motion towards a face-down or inward attitude.
5.3.18 ELEVATION
Angle between a line of sight and a horizontal plane.
5.3.19 AZIMUTH
Horizontal projection of the angle between a line of sight and a horizontal reference line.
5.3.20 ORIENTATION
Movement or manipulation of a rigid body into a pre-determined attitude.
5.3.21 POSE
Combination of position and attitude.
5.3.22 POSITIONAL ACCURACY
Degree of coincidence between required and actual positions.
5.3.23 PLAYBACK ACCURACY
Degree of coincidence between taught and playback positions.
5.3.24 HOLD
Suspension of all movement of a robot during an operating sequence while power supply is maintained.
5.3.25 SHAKE
Vibration of a robot arm during or at the end of a movement.
5.3.26 SPRINGBACK
Deflection of an end-effector when a load is removed.
5.3.27 JOINT VARIABLE
Quantity that describes the relative motion between two consecutive links of a manipulator.
5.3.28 SINGULAR CONFIGURATION
Special position of the robot links which implies a reduction of mobility of the end-effector.
5.3.29 OBSTACLE MAPPING
Geometric transformation from working space into a space (cartesian space or joint space) where the manipulator is represented by a point and the obstacles are represented as forbidden regions.

5.4


Control

5.4.1 TEACH CONTROL
Control of a robot by guiding its end effector through a desired sequence of poses and storing the coordinates of the poses in a memory.
5.4.2 ADAPTIVE CONTROL
Control by a system the programme or parameters of which change automatically in response to changes in the conditions under which the system operates.
5.4.3 POINT-TO-POINT CONTROL
Control to cause a reference point to take up a sequence of discrete positions.
5.4.4 POSE-TO-POSE CONTROL
Control to cause an object to take up a sequence of discrete poses.
5.4.5 CONTINUOUS-PATH CONTROL
Control to cause a reference point to follow a given continuous path.
5.4.6 SEQUENTIAL CONTROL
Control of an end-effector by driving the actuators of a robot sequentially.
5.4.7 RESOLVED-MOTION RATE CONTROL
Control of the velocity vector of a reference point by the use of computed actuator velocities.
5.4.8 LEARNING CONTROL
Control by a system whose programme and/or parameters change automatically according to the experience obtained during previous task cycles.
5.4.9 SENSORY CONTROL
Control scheme of a robot whereby its behaviour is adjusted in accordance with information given by external sensors.
5.4.10 IMPEDANCE CONTROL
Control scheme whereby the mechanical impedance of a robot is adjusted in accordance with the task to be executed.
5.4.11 FORCE (FEEDBACK) CONTROL
Control in which the controlled variables are the contact forces between the end-effector of a manipulator and the environment.
5.4.12 POSITION-FORCE CONTROL
Control of the end-effector of a manipulator such that its movements are controlled by position feedback and by force feedback.

5.5


Miscellaneous

5.5.1 TEACH-IN PROGRAMMING
Entering a programme into the memory of a robot by moving its end-effector through the series of poses that it is required to take up when the robot is operating.
5.5.2 TEACH RESTRICT
Restriction of the speed of a robot during teaching to a value that would be safe, or otherwise suitable, for normal operation.
5.5.3 OFF-LINE PROGRAMMING
Writing and verifying a computer programme for the control of a robot on a computer that is independent of the operational computer of the robot.
5.5.4 ACTIVE ACCOMMODATION
Adaptive control in response to sensed forces.
5.5.5 PASSIVE ACCOMMODATION
Use of mechanical compliance in the end-effector of a robot arm.
5.5.6 PROXIMAL
Close to the body (away from the end-effector) of a robot arm.
5.5.7 DISTAL
Away from the base (towards the end-effector) of a robot.
5.5.8 DIRECT TASK
Computation of the pose, motion and forces at the end-effector of a robot arm from given actuator forces, displacements, velocities and accelerations.
5.5.9 INVERSE TASK
Computation of actuator forces, displacements, velocities and accelerations from given forces, pose and motion of the end-effector of a robot.
5.5.10 TACTILE SENSE
Sense concerned with the contact between an end-effector and an object.
5.5.11 FORCE SENSE
Sense which perceives the reactive force between an object and the end-effector of a robot.
5.5.12 SLIP SENSE
Sense which perceives sliding between the contacting surfaces of an end-effector and an object.
5.5.13 PROXIMITY SENSE
Sense which perceives whether an object is within a limit region or not.
5.5.14 VISUAL SENSOR
Sensor which perceives information of environment as an optical image.
5.5.15 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Capacity of a robot to use sensor data in algorithms which simulate human intelligence.